[95], Bangladesh escaped major damage and deaths because the water displaced by the strike-slip fault was relatively little on the northern section of the rupture zone, which ruptured slowly. Rosie was saved by a stranger. The first wave came five minutes after the mainshock (0629 hrs.) How long did the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 last? That morning on Patong beach was very quiet. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. By the middle of the second day, I saw a mountain of dead bodies piling up and it was very sad to see. By clicking Accept All, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. Read about our approach to external linking. It also benefited from the fact that the earthquake proceeded more slowly in the northern rupture zone, greatly reducing the energy of the water displacements in that region. In deep ocean water, tsunami waves form only a low, broad hump, barely noticeable and harmless, which generally travels at high speed of 500 to 1,000km/h (310 to 620mph); in shallow water near coastlines, a tsunami slows down to only tens of kilometres per hour but, in doing so, forms large destructive waves. Yet more than 60,000 people in other countries could have been saved; they would have had at least an hour to move away from the shoreline if they had had some warning. 5 Reasons to Update Your Business Operations, Get the Best Sleep Ever in 5 Simple Steps, How to Pack for Your Next Trip Somewhere Cold, Manage Your Money More Efficiently in 5 Steps, Ranking the 5 Most Spectacular NFL Stadiums in 2023. In the Krishna district, the tsunami created havoc in Manginapudi and on Machalipattanam Beach. On December 26, 2004, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake unleashed massive tidal waves across South Asia. Only the Iraq War was named by as many respondents. However, others caution that damage to infrastructure is an overriding factor. A video, taken by a local restaurant manager from a hill adjacent to the beach, showed that the tsunami's arrival was preceded by a sudden retreat of the sea exposing the seafloor. Anticipate slowdowns caused by traffic gridlock and hundreds of other boaters heading out to sea. Video footage revealed torrents of black water, surging by windows of a two-story residential area situated about 3.2km (2.0mi) inland. Street fighting in Bakhmut but Russia not in control, Russian minister laughed at for Ukraine war claims. The area toward the sea was wiped clean of nearly every structure, while closer to the river, dense construction in a commercial district showed the effects of severe flooding. The state of Kerala experienced tsunami-related damage in three southern densely populated districts, Ernakulam, Alappuzha, and Kollam, due to diffraction of the waves around Sri Lanka. Then I rolled back to sleep. Governments and non-governmental organizations feared that the final death toll might double as a result of diseases, prompting a massive humanitarian response. The last major tsunami was caused by the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa. The tsunami heights from the 2004 December earthquake were not more than 3m (9.8ft) along the Myanmar coast, the amplitudes were slightly large off the Ayeyarwaddy Delta, probably because the shallow delta caused a concentration in tsunami energy. Over 230,000 people died when the massive waves hit the coasts of the countries . The largest run-up measured was at 12.5m (41ft) with inundation distance of 3901,500m (1,2804,920ft) in Yala. [82] The worst affected area in Tamil Nadu was Nagapattinam district, with 6,051 fatalities caused by a 5m (16ft) tsunami, followed by Cuddalore district, with many villages destroyed. Basir, A.K. What was the magnitude of the earthquake that caused the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004? This considerably outweighed the allocation by the government to disaster relief and reconstruction of 75 million and came to an average of about 5.50 (US$10) donated by every citizen. [76][pageneeded]. The waves receded before the first tsunami with the highest fatality reported from the densely populated Alappad panchayat (including the villages of Cheriya Azhikkal and Azhikkal) at Kollam district, caused by a 4m (13ft) tsunami. The measured tsunami height on this beach was 5.8m (19ft). We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. It was the day after the hospital staff party - it was my day off and I had a long lie-in. [171][172], In August 2006, fifteen local aid staff working on post-tsunami rebuilding were found executed in north-east Sri Lanka after heavy fighting between government troops and the Tamil Tiger rebels, the main umbrella body for aid agencies in the country said.[173]. Other footage showed the tsunami dramatically crashed into the Vivekananda Rock Memorial. At 08:00, I heard my wooden bedroom windows were shaking. I didn't know about the tsunami until then. Not every earthquake produces large tsunamis: on 28 March 2005, a magnitude 8.7 earthquake hit roughly the same area of the Indian Ocean but did not result in a major tsunami. [86] In Chuckchucha and Lapati, the tsunami arrived in a three-wave cycle with a maximum tsunami wave height of 12m (39ft). Eyewitnesses compared the tsunami with the "rainy-season high tide"; although at most locations, the tsunami height was similar or smaller than the "rainy-season high tide" level. [30] [62], The tsunami devastated the coastline of Aceh province, about 20 minutes after the earthquake. Corrections? 250,000 people survived the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami. Indonesian officials estimated that the death toll there alone ultimately exceeded 200,000, particularly in northern Sumatras Aceh province. [147] The deadliest tsunami before 2004 was Italy's 1908 Messina earthquake on the Mediterranean Sea where the earthquake and tsunami killed about 123,000. Our speedboat was getting closer to the shore. The flow depth at the city was just at the level of the second floor, and there were large amounts of debris piled along the streets and in the ground-floor storefronts. Island folklore recounted an earthquake and tsunami in 1907, and the islanders fled to inland hills after the initial shaking and before the tsunami struck. But, in these instances, waves reached incredible heights of more than 150 feet. The Boxing Day tsunami would be the deadliest in recorded history, taking a staggering 230,000 lives in a matter of hours. The tsunami and its aftermath were responsible for immense destruction and loss on the rim of the Indian Ocean. The main concern of humanitarian and government agencies was to provide sanitation facilities and fresh drinking water to contain the spread of diseases such as cholera, diphtheria, dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis A and hepatitis B. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. It inundated five square miles of land and cleared hundreds of thousands of trees. In the hours that followed, a massive tsunami fanned out across the Indian Ocean, killing close to 230,000 people, most in Indonesia. Many people were seen being swept out . The 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami was a result of an underwater earthquake off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Petra Nemcova, supermodel who survived 2004 Indonesia tsunami, helps rebuild school hit by Hurricane Harvey. In Myanmar, the tsunami caused only moderate damage, which arrived between 2 and 5.5 hours after the earthquake. I contacted my friend who was in the navy and he told me it was a tsunami. Banda Aceh, the closest major city, suffered severe casualties. Moreover, the tsunami was detected by scuba divers around offshore islands like the Similan Islands and the Surin Islands. I told him it was really worth it. [82], The tsunami run-up was only 1.6m (5.2ft) in areas in the state of Tamil Nadu shielded by the island of Sri Lanka but was 45m (1316ft) in coastal districts such as Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu directly across from Sumatra. [129] UNEP established an emergency fund, set up a Task Force to respond to requests for assistance from countries affected by the tsunami, and was able to mobilize and distribute approximately US$9.3 million for environmental recovery and disaster risk reduction between 2004 and 2007. Almost all of the Onge people seemed to have survived the tsunami. Ahead of the 15th anniversary of the tragedy, BBC Thai's Chaiyot Yongcharoenchai visited southern Thailand, which was devastated by the tsunami. Furthermore, at the coastal town of Kanyakumari, the seabed was exposed briefly before a large wall of water can be seen on the horizon and subsequently flooding the town. [56] However, not all tsunamis cause this "disappearing sea" effect. Rahmat Saiful Bahri survived the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 that swept over Indonesias Aceh province. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. Footage captured at Koh Lanta showed a wall of water swamping the beach, while another video taken at another location showed a large surfing wave like tsunami approaching the shore, lifting up a yacht and flooding the beach. Some 37,000 people are missing. In four villages surveyed by . Interview by Hidayatullah for BBC Indonesian. The most damaging tsunami on record before 2004 was the one that killed an estimated 40,000 people in 1782 following an earthquake in the South China Sea. [28] The earthquake produced its own aftershocks (some registering a magnitude of as high as 6.1) and presently ranks as the third-largest earthquake ever recorded on the moment magnitude or Richter magnitude scale. A massive tsunami with waves up to 30m (100ft) high, known in some countries as the Boxing Day Tsunami after the Boxing Day holiday, devastated communities along the surrounding coasts of the Indian Ocean, killing an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries in one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Maldives Report", "Death toll in Asian tsunami disaster tops 159,000", "Asian tsunami death toll passes 144,000", "Tsunami Evaluation Coalition: Initial Findings", "On the weak impact of the 26 December Indian Ocean tsunami on the Bangladesh coast", "The South Sandwich Islands earthquake of 27 June 1929: seismological study and inference on tsunami risk for the southern Atlantic", "YEMEN: Tsunami damage over US$1 million UNEP assessment", "Helping restore the quality of drinking water after the tsunami". What happened? The Persson Cabinet was heavily criticized for its inaction. The third wave was the strongest, with a maximum tsunami wave height of 11m (36ft). All of them were speeding through and honking and they passed by the area. Oxfam went on to report that as many as four times more women than men were killed in some regions because they were waiting on the beach for the fishers to return and looking after their children in the houses. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. [citation needed] Presence of seawalls at the Kerala and Tamil Nadu coasts reduced the impact of the waves. The earliest, lower amplitude signal is that of the compressional (P) wave, which takes about 22 minutes to reach the other side of the planet (the antipode; in this case near Ecuador). Dont count on it being over after the first wave the first wave may not even be the biggest. [157] On further investigation, the India government learned that the consulting company Terra Research was run from the home of a self-described earthquake forecaster who had no telephone listing and maintained a website where he sold copies of his detection system. At Patong Beach, a popular tourist destination, the tsunami first arrived as a small flood, which swept away cars and surprised people. An even higher runup point was measured on a cliff near the town of Eyl, solely on an eyewitness account. Then I went back home, right behind the temple. That's when I realised something serious had happened. Uncountable wells that served communities were invaded by sea, sand, and earth; and aquifers were invaded through porous rock. The 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years. [139], Countries in the region appealed to tourists to return, pointing out that most tourist infrastructure is undamaged. The first warning sign of a possible tsunami is the earthquake itself. Eyewitnesses described the tsunami as a "black giant", "mountain" and a "wall of water". Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 (magnitude 9.0) and Thoku, Japan (magnitude 9.1) in March 2011. [83] The shrine's compound, nearby villages, hundreds of shops, homes and pilgrims were washed away into the sea. Indonesia was the worst-hit country, with more than 120,000 dead. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Analytics". Who survived the tsunami? Another video from Kamala Beach showed the tsunami flooding the ground floor of a restaurant sweeping away an elderly couple. It has been theorized that the tsunamis were focused and directed at long ranges by the mid-ocean ridges which run along the margins of the continental plates.[54]. We made a stop at Koh Racha Yai island in Phuket for a diving lesson for our interns. In the seaside section of Ulee Lheue, the flow depths were over 9m (30ft). [15] The plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response, with donations totalling more than US$14 billion. [65], Lhoknga is a small coastal community about 13km (8.1mi) south-west of Banda Aceh, located on a flat coastal plain in between two rainforest-covered hills, overlooking a large bay and famous for its large swathe of white sandy beach and surfing activities. Then the water went down, so far out, before the second wave hit the beach again. One of the few coastal areas to evacuate ahead of the tsunami was on the Indonesian island of Simeulue, close to the epicentre. The locals reported 10 to 12 waves, with the second and third being the highest and most destructive. [169], In mid-March, the Asian Development Bank reported that over US$4 billion in aid promised by governments was behind schedule. [100] An initial report by Siti Fadilah Supari, the Indonesian Minister of Health at the time, estimated the death total to be as high as 220,000 in Indonesia alone, giving a total of 280,000 fatalities. [5][68][69], Meulaboh, a remote coastal city, was among the hardest hit by the tsunami. . [6] A much higher number of deaths has been suggested for Myanmar based on reports from Thailand. [34], The energy released on the Earth's surface (ME, which is the seismic potential for damage) by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was estimated at 1.11017 joules (110PJ; 26Mt). The magnitude of the earthquake that caused the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 was 9.1. She and her boyfriend were both injured but survived. Many soldiers have fought in and survived warseven being POWs on different occasionsbut some had to endure it more than once. Within 23km (1.21.9mi) of the shoreline, houses, except for strongly-built reinforced concrete ones with brick walls, which seemed to have been partially damaged by the earthquake before the tsunami attack, were swept away or destroyed by the tsunami. [citation needed]. The shift of mass and the massive release of energy slightly altered the Earth's rotation. At conservative gathering, Trump is still the favourite. Because of its enormous energy release and shallow rupture depth, the earthquake generated remarkable seismic ground motions around the globe, particularly due to huge Rayleigh (surface) elastic waves that exceeded 10mm (0.4in) in vertical amplitude everywhere on Earth. How many people are still missing from tsunami 2004? A tsunami that causes damage far away from its source is sometimes called a teletsunami and is much more likely to be produced by the vertical motion of the seabed than by horizontal motion. At this point, the India Plate subducts beneath the Burma Plate, which carries the Nicobar Islands, the Andaman Islands, and northern Sumatra. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake came just three days after a magnitude 8.1 earthquake in the sub-antarctic Auckland Islands, an uninhabited region west of New Zealand, and Macquarie Island to Australia's north. Sat 26 Mar 2005 07.50 EST. However, the huge demand has led to lower quality in the process, and some important materials were sacrificed to cut prices for those who were impoverished by the tsunami. 10 Historically Most Devastating and Deadliest Tsunamis Amateur video recorded at the city of Galle showed a large deluge flooding the city, carrying debris and sweeping away people while in the coastal resort town of Beruwala, the tsunami appeared as a huge brown-orange colored bore which reached the first level of a hotel, causing destruction and taking people unaware. Lang's brother survived, but Rubina Wong did not. Flooding occurred at the coast and low-lying areas inland, which were connected to open sea through creeks. Survivors walk through the debris on Phuket's Patong beach the day after the tsunami Shortly before 08:00 on 26 December 2004, a magnitude-9.1 earthquake struck under the sea in northern. How many peoples survived tsunami 2004? Each of these megathrust earthquakes . Besides that, a 10m (33ft) black muddy tsunami ravaged the city of Karaikal, where 492 people died. Its best to be on the landward side of the house, away from windows. Jpan survived the earthquake pretty well only they weren't ready for the massive 9.0 tsnami that followed The tsunami destroyed settlements at Hut Bay within a range of 1km (0.62mi) from the seashore. Their seismic moments can account for a significant fraction of the global seismic moment across century-scale periods. Due to close proximity to the earthquake, the tsunami took just minutes to devastate the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was unusually large in geographical and geological extent. Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features. The earthquake was the third-most-powerful earthquake recorded since 1900. Ghosh Roy. A series of huge waves triggered by an earthquake killed more than 230,000 people in 14 countries. [36], The earthquake generated a seismic oscillation of the Earth's surface of up to 200300mm (812in), equivalent to the effect of the tidal forces caused by the Sun and Moon. [82] Most of the people killed were members of the fishing community. south east england accent; spend billionaires money game; kaplan data entry work from home. She and her boyfriend were both. Amateur video recorded taken at a resort beach showed the tsunami arriving as a large wall of water as it approached the coast and flooding it as it advanced inland. He was trapped and died inside the building where he was. Notable people killed in the 2004 Asian tsunami: Jane Attenborough, 49, British arts administrator, daughter of actor Richard Attenborough. The tsunami stranded cargo ships, barges and destroyed a cement mining facility near the Lampuuk coast, where it reached the fourth level of the building. As we tried to help more people in the supermarket, I heard from outside that another wave was coming. [20] Splay faults, or secondary "pop up faults", caused long, narrow parts of the seafloor to pop up in seconds. [citation needed] According to local accounts,[attribution needed] tsunami waves attacked the area three times. We decided to help only the injured survivors and we finally rescued at least 414 tourists and locals, and transferred them to a more equipped hospital on Phuket. Distance alone was no guarantee of safety, as Somalia was hit harder than Bangladesh despite being much farther away. As I stepped into the temple, I could smell dead bodies the way I never had before in my life. Then dead bodies started to come in. The World Food Programme provided food aid to more than 1.3 million people affected by the tsunami. Approximately 90,000 buildings and many wooden houses were destroyed.[73]. The record section plot displays vertical displacements of the Earth's surface recorded by seismometers from the IRIS/USGS Global Seismographic Network plotted with respect to time (since the earthquake initiation) on the horizontal axis, and vertical displacements of the Earth on the vertical axis (note the 1cm scale bar at the bottom for scale). Answer: I resided in Banda Aceh when tsunami occured back in 2004. my home located around 4.5 km from the sea, which is ulee lheue beach. Island folklore recounted an earthquake and tsunami in 1907, and the islanders fled to inland hills after the initial shaking and before the tsunami struck. On 9 February 2005, President Bush asked Congress to increase the U.S. commitment to a total of US$950 million. When I arrived, I saw staff floating face down in the water that flooded the basement of the building. 2023 BBC. I said the prayer into the microphone, so everyone could hear it. CA License # A-588676-HAZ / DIR Contractor Registration #1000009744 The first wave came 5 minutes after the earthquake, preceded by a recession of the sea up to 600700m (2,0002,300ft). The direct results caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce in coastal provinces of surrounded countries, including Aceh (Indonesia), Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu (India) and Khao Lak (Thailand). At Phuket Province, the island province's western beaches were struck by the tsunami. Most of the victims were reported along the low-lying Xaafuun Peninsula. [132], The level of damage to the economy resulting from the tsunami depends on the scale examined. [125], In addition to other forms of aid,[127] the Australian government sent ecological experts to help develop strategies for reef-monitoring and rehabilitation of marine environments and coral reefs in the Maldives, Seychelles and other areas. Tsunamis are giant waves that are produced when a large volume of water is displaced in an ocean or large lake by an earthquake, volcanic eruption, underwater landslide or meteorite. On the western coast, the runup elevations were 4.5m (15ft) at Kanyakumari District in Tamil Nadu and 3.4m (11ft) each at Kollam and Ernakulam districts in Kerala. A scene of devastation is seen in the 2004 tsunami hit Indonesian City of Banda Aceh Getty. [137], While the tsunami destroyed many of the boats vital to Sri Lanka's fishing industry, it also created a demand for fibreglass-reinforced plastic catamarans in the boatyards of Tamil Nadu. Edie Fassnidge lost both her mother and sister in the tsunami. Most of them had broken bones or cuts on their bodies. The military started to bring in containers to keep the bodies in. On the other side of the ocean, in Somalia, waves ranged in height from 11 to 31 feet (3.4 to 9.4 meters). Now 26, Lucas spent the past summer as one of the heroes of the pandemic, helping thousands of COVID-19 patients at hospitals in London. [41] Since movement was vertical as well as lateral, some coastal areas may have been moved to below sea level. The quiet resort town of Khao Lak is located on a stretch of golden sandy beach, famed for its hotels overlooking the Andaman Sea and hilly rainforests. Video footage revealed torrents of black water, surging by windows of a two-story residential area situated about 3.2 km (2.0 mi) inland. How many people died in the Boxing Day tsunami? Despite a delay of up to several hours between the earthquake and the impact of the tsunami, nearly all of the victims were taken by surprise. [124], The main effect was caused by poisoning of the freshwater supplies and of the soil by saltwater infiltration and a deposit of a salt layer over arable land.
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